Business Risk Assessment and the Management of Climate Impacts (Tacloban City)


WWF-Philippines and the Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI) Foundation, Inc.


February 4, 2016
Business Risk Assessment Management of Climate Change Impacts

The partnership project between WWF-Philippines (World Wide Fund for Nature), the world's largest conservation organization, and BPI Foundation, Inc., the corporate social responsibility arm of the Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI) to undertake a Business Risk Assessment and the Management of Climate Change Impacts study in key Philippine cities, with the aim of helping city planners and decision-makers assess climate change impacts, identify opportunities and decide on a sustainability strategy, site-specific interventions and standards of next practice that will allow the city to retain economic viability and respond more competitively in a climate-defined future.

1. Angeles City 

Located just beyond the northern rim of Central Luzon's vast flood catchment, Angeles City is situated inland, far away from the sea. Although the city claims to be historically free from serious flooding, it is located well within a typhoon-affected Type 1 climate zone. Economic activity in and around any river basin is likely to be impacted by the intense storms and extreme rainfall spawned by a changing climate.

2. Baguio City 

As the only inland city on our list, it is unlikely that Baguio City will experience any of the direct coastal impacts of climate change. Baguio sits in a Type 1 Climate zone, with a pronounced wet season from May to October. However, its location in northern Luzon, puts the city well within the Philippine typhoon belt. This clearly establishes that Baguio faces exposure to intensified tropical cyclones and extreme rainfall. 



El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are a meta-scale phenomenon, spanning several large areas of the planet. All four cities covered under Phase 1 will be exposed to recurrences of ENSO in varying degrees.

3. Batangas City 

Batangas City sits at the coastal edge of a gently sloped and rolling landscape extending from the uplands of Lipa City down to Batangas Bay. With more than 73% of the city's land area located on slopes less than 15%, geo-hazard maps indicate low susceptibility to both floods and landslides. Although it is located within Luzon – an island that suffers from most typhoons moving westward from the Pacific to the West Philippine Sea – Batangas City's western orientation generally protects it from the worst effects of tropical cyclones. The cities and towns of Batangas Bay straddle Type 1 and Type 3 climate zones.

4. Butuan City 

One of the cities under Phase 4 of the project and currently undergoing assessment.

5. Cagayan de Oro City 

Cagayan de Oro is a coastal city located within a Type 3 climate zone. Sitting close to what could be the southernmost rim of the Philippine typhoon belt, the city received 11 typhoon hits over a 20-year period. In a country that regularly receives up to 20 or more tropical storms per year, one event every two years seems relatively insignificant. From 1960 to 2010, official data reports annual rainfall of only 1697 mm – once again, well below the national average of 2400 mm.

6. Cebu City 

Like Iloilo, Cebu City will be exposed to all six climate scenarios listed in the WWF study. It is the only city on this list situated in a Type 2 Climate zone, with a relatively pronounced wet season from June to early January. Its location, in the central Visayas, between the wet / typhoon prone and dry / hot belts of the Philippines, points to the likelihood that its rainfall challenge will have to do with high variability and a difficulty of prediction, rather than a pronounced increase or decrease of rainfall. 



El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are a meta-scale phenomenon, spanning several large areas of the planet. All four cities covered under Phase 1 will be exposed to recurrences of ENSO in varying degrees.

7. Dagupan City 

The city of Dagupan was built on the water-saturated substrate of a coastal wetland, facing the West Philippine Sea. This historical fact could very well emerge as the main determinant of Dagupan's exposure to climate risk. This could also define and limit the opportunities for re-configuration that are available to the city. Sitting within a Type 1 climate zone, the city is located well within the Philippine typhoon belt. Official data reports 47 typhoon hits over 20 years. That is another given, and with climate change, tropical storms are expected to intensify.

8. Davao City 

Davao City is the only city in Phase 1 that sits in a Type 4 Climate zone, with relatively even year-round rainfall. It does not experience typhoons. As a coastal city in this typhoon-free portion of Mindanao, the city's future will likely involve only 5 of the 6 climate scenarios listed in the WWF study. 



El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are a meta-scale phenomenon, spanning several large areas of the planet. All four cities covered under Phase 1 will be exposed to recurrences of ENSO in varying degrees.

9. General Santos City 

One of the cities under Phase 4 of the project and currently undergoing assessment.

10. Iloilo City 

Iloilo City, like Cebu, will be exposed to all six climate scenarios listed in the WWF study. Like Baguio, it sits in a Type 1 Climate zone, with a pronounced wet season from May to early December. Its location, between the wet / typhoon prone and dry / hot belts of the archipelago, may point to the likelihood that it will have to deal with high rainfall variability, rather than a pronounced rainfall increase or decrease. 



El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are a meta-scale phenomenon, spanning several large areas of the planet. All four cities covered under Phase 1 will be exposed to recurrences of ENSO in varying degrees.

11. Laoag City 

A river defines the current spread of Laoag City. To an extent, that same river influences the city's level of climate exposure. Located in broad flatlands, scored only by this watercourse and its delta, the city's gently sloping terrain rises from its lowest point - barely 2 meters above sea level - to distant hills that are only 60 meters high. As a result, Laoag does not share the landslide risk facing Baguio, Cebu, Cagayan de Oro, Zamboanga or some portions of Davao.

12. Naga City 

Naga City is sandwiched between two natural systems that influence its hydrologic cycle - Mount Isarog, to the east, and Southern Luzon's major flood zone, the Bicol River Basin, to the west. Historically, this southernmost section of Luzon, situated within a Type 2 climate zone, is visited by several typhoons a year.

13. Puerto Princesa City 

One of the cities under Phase 4 of the project and currently undergoing assessment.

14. Santiago City 

One of the cities under Phase 4 of the project and currently undergoing assessment.

15. Tacloban City 

Facing Cancabato Bay in the San Juanico Strait, Tacloban City is located along the northeastern coastline of Leyte Province. A developing urban center among the eastern-most islands and towns of the archipelago, Tacloban is located within a Type 2 climate zone, inside the Philippine typhoon belt. 



NOTE: Due to the destruction the city suffered from Super Typhoon Yolanda/Haiyan, much of the data/analysis for this city are no longer valid. At best, they may serve as a source of historical information.

16. Zamboanga City 

Zamboanga City can be described as a classic "ridge to reef" ecosystem. This coastal city sits within a Type 3 climate zone, at the southernmost tip of the Zamboanga Peninsula. This is a typhoon-free zone.

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We would love to hear from you! Feel free to contact us through any of the details listed below.

WWF–Philippines Headquarters

4th Floor JBD Plaza #65 Mindanao Ave.
Barangay Bagong Pag-asa,
Quezon City 1105 Philippines

Tel: +632 920 7923 / 7926 / 7931
Fax: +632 426 3927
Email: kkp@wwf.org.ph

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